Benjamin Pike, 1777-1863
Benjamin Pike, Junior, 1809-1864
Daniel Pike, 1815-1893
Gardiner Pike, 1825-1893
Arthur Martin Pike, ca. 1853-1893
Joseph Robinson, 1854- ca. 1925
Mansfield Hanville, 1865-1948

by Brian Stevenson
last updated January, 2017

Benjamin Pike founded an optical, scientific, and engineering business in New York, in 1806. It was hugely successful, and operated under various ownerships and names for 110 years. They were one of the pre-eminent makers of corrective eyeglasses in New York. Early microscopes from the Pike businesses were primarily imports from Europe on which they inscribed their name or attached labels. They manufactured some of their own microscopes during the last half of the nineteenth century, while also supplying high-end imports from European makers such as R. & J. Beck.

Evaluation of historical records gives the following names and addresses of the Pike businesses, and the dates of each:

Benjamin Pike, 1806 - ca. 1831
147 Pearl Street, 1806 - 1810
12 Wall Street, 1810 - ca. 1830
166 Broadway, ca. 1830 - ca. 1831

Benjamin Pike & Son, ca. 1831 - 1839
166 Broadway, ca. 1831 - 1839

Benjamin Pike & Sons, 1839 - 1843
166 Broadway, ca. 1831 - 1843

Benjamin Pike & Son, 1843 - 1849
166 Broadway, 1843 - 1849

Benjamin Pike Jr., 1843 - ca. 1864
294 Broadway, 1843 - ca. 1864

Benjamin Pike & Sons, 1849 - ca. 1860
166 Broadway, 1849 - ca. 1855
518 Broadway, ca. 1855 - ca. 1863

Benjamin Pike & Son, ca. 1860 - ca. 1863
518 Broadway, ca. 1860 - ca. 1863

Benjamin Pike’s Son, ca. 1863 - 1875
518 Broadway, ca. 1863 - 1875

Pike and Benjamin Pike’s Son used interchangeably, 1875 - 1878
518 Broadway, 1875 - 1878

Benjamin Pike’s Son & Co., 1878 - 1883
930 Broadway, 1878 - 1881
928 Broadway, 1881 - 1883

Benjamin Pike’s Sons, 1883 - 1885
928 Broadway, 1883 - 1885

Benjamin Pike’s Son, 1885 - ca. 1916
930 Broadway, 1885 - ca. 1895
18 East 23rd Street, ca. 1895 - ca. 1913
638 Madison Avenue, ca. 1913 - ca. 1916


Figure 1. Microscope slides labeled “B. Pike & Son, 518 Broadway, New York”, dating ca. 1860-63. Courtesy of Allan Wissner.

 


Figure 2. Three small microscope slides that were prepared by Charles M. Topping, and retailed by B. Pike & Son. Two standard-sized Topping slides are shown for handwriting and size comparisons. Courtesy of Howard Lynk.

 


Figure 3. Drum-pattern microscope, signed “Benj. Pike & Sons, 166 Broadway, New York”. Probably made in France, circa 1850, and most likely retailed by the partnership of Benjamin Sr., Daniel, and Gardiner Pike. Adapted for nonprofit, educational purposes from an internet auction site.

 


Figure 4. Drum-style compound microscope, probably made in France. Labeled for sale by Benjamin Pike, Jr., circa 1850. Adapted with permission from http://www.antique-microscopes.com/photos/Pike_French_Drum_Microscope.htm.

 

Very little is known about Benjamin Pike’s early years. According to an obituary, he was born in London during 1877. It is thought that he received training in the optical trade.

He moved to New York City, USA, in 1878, when 21 years old. On November 27, 1805, he married Sarah Parker, in her home town of Norton, Massachusetts. They had three sons, Benjamin Jr., Daniel, and Gardiner, all of whom eventually joined their father in business, and three daughters, Mary, Elizabeth, and Harriet. Neither Daniel, Mary, nor Harriet married, and lived together through their lives. Gardiner had one son, Arthur, who later joined his uncle Daniel in business.

Benjamin Sr. probably worked as an optician after arriving in New York. Advertisements during Pike’s lifetime stated that he founded his own optical business in 1806. Later advertisements that give the date as 1804 are presumably mistaken. The 1808 Longworth's American Almanac gave Pike’s address as 147 Pearl Street, New York City, and it is likely that he initially opened at that same address. Pike moved to 12 Wall Street in about 1810, and then to 166 Broadway in about 1830.

Eldest son Benjamin Pike, Jr., joined his father in approximately 1831, and the firm became Benjamin Pike and Son.

Benjamin Pike’s business was very successful. The family did not live at the shop, but instead had a home on North Moore Street.

Benjamin Jr. married Frances Matilda Hope on April 14, 1838. They had a son and two daughters. City directories indicate that the couple lived on their own for several years, then moved in with Benjamin Jr.’s parents on North Moore.

Daniel Pike joined his father and brother in 1839, and the business became Benjamin Pike & Sons.

In 1840, Benjamin Pike & Sons won a Silver Medal at the Fifth Annual Fair of the Mechanics’ Institute, for their “surveying and drawing instruments”, and a second place Diploma at The Thirteenth Annual Fair of the American Institute for “specimens of surveyors compasses and levels, beautiful finish”. An 1843 publication on hygrometrical measurements stated, “Daniel’s hygrometer, which is the only one on which any dependence can be placed, as it is the only one constructed on truly scientific principles, may be procured of Messrs. Benj. Pike & Son (sic), opticians, No. 166 Broadway, N.Y. (price $14.)”.

Benjamin Jr. separated and formed his own business during 1843, at 294 Broadway. That also became his family’s home. The Benjamin Pike Jr. optical business remained at that site until the owner’s death, in 1864. He is known to have issued two, 2-volume catalogs, in 1848 and in 1856.

Down to only one son, Daniel, Benjamin Sr.’s business reverted its name to Benjamin Pike & Son. Thus, instruments marked with that name and the address 166 Broadway could have been made/sold by Benjamin Sr. and Jr. between ca. 1831 and 1839, or by Benjamin Sr. and Daniel between 1843 and 1849.

An 1845 advertisement indicated that the Pike business both manufactured and imported a variety of scientific and engineering instruments. Microscopes with the early names and addresses of Pike’s businesses appear to be European imports that they signed. However, they certainly manufactured corrective eyeglasses, and were well-regarded for their spectacles.

The third and youngest son, Gardiner, joined his father and brother in 1849, and the business once again became Benjamin Pike and Sons. They remained at 166 Broadway until about 1855. Instruments with that name and address could, therefore, have been produced between ca. 1831 and 1843, or between 1849 and ca. 1855.

In about 1855, Benjamin Pike and Sons moved to 518 Broadway.

In 1856, The American Institute of the City of New York awarded Benjamin Pike & Sons a Silver Medal “for superior surveying and optical instruments”, and Benjamin Pike Jr. a Silver Medal for “philosophical instruments”.

Also around 1856, Benjamin Jr. built a 27-room mansion in Queens, New York, on 440 acres of farmland, as weekend retreat. The 1860 U.S. Census caught him there, and listed his occupation as “farmer”. The house was later sold to the Steinway family, of piano-making fame, and it is today known as the Steinway Mansion.

Benjamin Sr. died on May 2, 1863. Scientific American wrote of him, “One of our old and much respected citizen mechanicians has lately gone ‘where the weary are at rest’. Benjamin Pike, Sen., the well-known philosophical instrument-maker, died at his residence in this city on the 2d inst., at the advanced age of eighty-six years. Since his decease we have gleaned some interesting facts respecting his life and character. Mr. Pike was born in London in 1777, and came to this country in 1798, at the age of 21 years. In 1805, he established himself in business, in this city, as an optician and manufacturer of mathematical and philosophical instruments, and he soon became widely known for his mechanical skill. He was an enthusiast in his profession and gave it his undivided time and attention. His ambition was to serve the public with instruments equal to the increasing demands of science. He was a careful and diligent student; and after the labors of the day had ended he thoroughly informed himself of the researches and advance of natural philosophy. For half a century his store was the headquarters of scientific men, and he was the companion of Fulton, Eckford and others whose genius has done credit to our country. He manufactured models and instruments for them, and he was really the great pioneer manufacturer of philosophical instruments in America. Several years since he purchased a farm, a short distance from the city, which afforded him much quiet pleasure in his declining years, but to the last he manifested a deep interest in all things connected with skillful and ingenious mechanism. In manner he was unobtrusive and retiring, a man of few words but large ideas, and a consistent Christian”. The “farm, a short distance from the city” may have been the mansion and farm in Queens. However, the 1870 census recorded son Daniel living on a farm in Providence, New Jersey, which is also close to New York City.

Benjamin Pike Jr. died about a year after his father, on May 7, 1864.

Gardiner Pike resigned from the optical partnership during the early 1860s, probably around 1860. By 1867, the business was known as Benjamin Pike’s Son, with Daniel as sole owner. The 1870 census listed Gardiner as being a “retired optician”. He still lived in New York City, with his wife, two children, and a house servant. Presumably, he was living off inheritance from his father.

The 1870 census located Daniel at his farm in Providence, New Jersey, occupation “optician”. Daniel never married, and lived with two unmarried sisters. The house and farm employed a house servant, a gardener, and three farm laborers.

Daniel took on two new partners during the mid-1870s:

Joseph Robinson probably joined the business in 1875. That year’s Trow’s New York City Directory listed him as being an optician at 518 Broadway, whereas the previous years’ directories did not include him. Robinson was then about 21 years old. A reasonable assumption is that Robinson had been an apprentice with Daniel Pike, and was brought on board as a partner upon completion of training.

Gardiner Pike’s only son, Arthur, joined the partnership in 1878. This coincided with the business’ name change to Benjamin Pike’s Son and Company.

The business moved to 930 Broadway during the summer of 1878. The address changed to 928 Broadway during late 1881. A later iteration of the Pike business gave their address as 930 Broadway, suggesting that they occupied both numbers 928 and 930.

Robinson resigned from the Pike business in the spring of 1882. This was reported as, “Mr. Joseph Robinson has retired from the firm of Benj. Pike's Son & Co., manufacturers of fine engineering, surveying and mining instruments, 928 Broadway, this city. The firm name will be continued as heretofore”, and “The copartnership heretofore existing under the name of Benjamin Pike’s Son & Co. has been dissolved, Mr. Joseph Robinson retiring. Messrs. Daniel Pike and Arthur M. Pike continue with the same firm name”. Although Robinson was described as having retired, he actually opened his own optical business at 1146 Broadway. That business continued through the turn of the century. He is identifiable in the 1920 US census, but not in 1930, suggesting that Robinson may have died during the 1920s.

Yet another name change occurred in February, 1883. The Engineering News-Record reported, “The firm of Benjamin Pike’s Son & Co., importers and manufacturers of optical and mathematical instruments, 928 Broadway, has changed its name to that of Benjamin Pike’s Sons. The house was established in 1804 by Benjamin Pike, Sr., and during the many years of its existence has maintained its reputation for making instruments of marked excellence”. Note that the date of establishment is two years earlier than Benjamin Pike Sr. had stated. Despite the plural “Sons”, the partnership consisted only of Daniel and his nephew, Arthur.

The pair lost the Pike business in 1885. The April 30, 1885 New York Times reported, “An Old House Goes Under. The Sherriff has taken possession of the store of Benjamin Pike’s Son, dealer in optical goods, at 930 Broadway, on attachments in favor of the Wakefield Rattan Company for $2,500, A.J. Post for $4,000, and J. Falconer for $9,000. The firm is composed of Daniel Pike and his nephew, Arthur M. Pike. The business was started in 1804 in Wall-street by Benjamin Pike, who died in 1863. Daniel Pike, who is over 80 years of age (sic), entered the house in 1846 (sic). The business was at 518 Broadway for nearly a quarter of a century, and the firm moved to No. 930 Broadway in 1878. They have a stock nominally worth about $45,000, but it has been accumulating for years and it is thought that it will scarcely cover the attachments. A Boardman holds a chattel mortgage on it for $5,000”. Note that some of the “facts” are incorrect; they do not jibe with historical records.

All three remaining members of the Pike optical family died in 1893. Arthur died of pneumonia on February 13. Gardiner died on April 13, and Daniel on April 16.

The Pike business was purchased out of bankruptcy by one Mansfield Hanville (also spelled “Hanvill”). It is not clear whether he had a prior connection to the Pike optical businesses. He retained the name of Benjamin Pike’s Son until it closed. The shop moved to 18 East 23rd Street during the mid-1890s, then to 638 Madison Avenue during the early 1900s. The business was still listed in the 1916 Trow’s New York City Directory. It is reported to have closed during that year, ending the Pike optical and scientific businesses after 110 years.


Figure 5. Advertisement by Benjamin Pike & Son (Benjamin Sr. and Daniel), 1845.

 


Figure 6. An 1849 advertisement by Benjamin Pike & Sons.

 


Figure 7. Two-page advertisement from Benjamin Pike & Sons, 1856. Note that Benjamin Sr. stated that he began his business in 1806.

 


Figure 8. A receipt from Benjamin Pike & Sons, dated May 29, 1858. Adapted for nonprofit, educational purposes from an internet auction site.

 


Figure 9. An inexpensive French drum microscope, with a label reading “Benj. Pike & Sons, 518 Broadway”. Circa 1855-1860. Adapted for nonprofit, educational purposes from an internet auction site.

 


Figure 10. Frontispieces from Benjamin Pike Jr.’s 1848 (left) and 1856 (right) catalogs. Both buildings were situated at 294 Broadway. The building on the right replaced the original. According to Benjamin Jr., “it was designed and erected in 1850, by the author, for the convenient prosecution of his business. It is twenty-four feet front, one hundred and thirty deep, extending through the block to Manhattan Place, the adjoining street. The front is of brown stone, and five stories high. The interior is unique, well and conveniently arranged for the manufacture, exhibition, and sale of Philosophical Instruments”. The Pike family lived here, presumably in the upper floors. In addition to rebuilding his shop and home, Benjamin Jr. also bought 440 acres in Queens, New York, and built a 27 room mansion, all evidence that his business was financially very successful.

 


Figure 11. A compound microscope signed “Benjamin Pike, Jr., 298 Broadway”. It is not listed in his 1848 catalog, and the style suggests that it was produced prior to that time. Adapted for nonprofit, educational purposes from an internet auction site.

 


Figure 12. Compound microscope, probably made by Charles Chevalier, Paris, France. Labeled for sale by Benjamin Pike, Jr. The engraving is from Pike Jr.’s 1856 catalog.  Adapted for nonprofit, educational purposes from an internet auction site.

 


Figure 13. An 1870 advertisement from Benjamin Pike’s Son (Daniel Pike).

 


Figure 14. Two advertisements for “Pike”, 1875 and 1878.

 


Figure 15. A series of 1878 advertisements from ‘The American Journal of Microscopy and Popular Science’, indicating both the move of Pike’s business to 930 Broadway, and the adoption of the name “Benjamin Pike’s Son & Company”.

 


Figure 16. Microscope number 90, signed “B. Pike’s Son, 518 Broadway”, The business name and address from ca. 1863 - 1875. It is the same model as microscope 120 (Figure 16), suggesting that number 90 was produced in approximately 1875. Adapted for nonprofit, educational purposes from an internet auction site.

 


Figure 17. Microscope number 120, signed “Pike, Maker, 518 Broadway”. The company used that name between 1875 and 1878. Adapted by permission from http://www.antique-microscopes.com/photos/Pike_microscope_120.htm.

 


Figure 18. Microscope number 1155, signed “Benj’n Pike’s Son, 518 Broadway”. It is similar in appearance to microscope 1184, which bears the 930 Broadway address (Figure 18). Both microscopes 120 and 1184 are signed “Pike”. This suggests that the business interchangeably used the names “Benjamin Pike’s Son” and “Pike” between 1875 and 1878. Adapted for nonprofit, educational purposes from an internet auction site.

 


Figure 19. Microscope 1184, signed “Pike, Maker, 930 Broadway”. It uses a fusee-chain coarse focus, instead of the more common rack-and-pinion. It appears to be essentially the same model as microscope 1155 (Figure 17), which bears the address 518 Broadway. That suggests that this microscope was made shortly after the move, in mid-1878. Adapted by permission from http://www.antique-microscopes.com/photos/Pike_Maker_microscope.htm.

 


Figure 20. Inner cover and example microscopes from an undated, circa 1880 catalog issued by Benjamin Pike’s Son & Co. The microscope on the right is Pike’s “Professional” model, which was heavily advertised at that time (see Figure 20, below). The catalog shows that they also sold imported microscopes and lenses from R. & J. Beck, London, as well as American-made optics and microscopes from William Wale and Bausch & Lomb.

 


Figure 21. Advertisements from Benjamin Pike’s Son (Daniel and Arthur Pike). Top, 1880. Bottom, 1882. The business appears to have occupied both 928 and 930 Broadway.

 




Figure 22. Microscopes advertised in 1848 by Benjamin Pike, Jr. He offered notably older designs, such the Culpeper microscope and ivory sliders with mica coverslips, as well as recent innovations such as the two French achromatic imports shown in the lower left.

 


Figure 23. Benjamin Pike Jr.’s farm house in Queens. Photographed in the late 1800s, when it was known as the Steinway Mansion.

 

Acknowledgments

My thanks to Allan Wissner and Howard Lynk for providing images and for their continued support of this history project.

 

Resources

American Advertiser (1849) Advertisement from Pike and Sons, page 15

The American Journal of Microscopy and Popular Science (1878) Advertisements from Pike, Optician and Benjamin Pike’s Son & Co., Vol. 3, April, July, and November issues

The American Monthly Microscopical Journal (1880) Advertisement from Benjamin Pike’s Son & Co., Vol. 1, November issue back cover

The American Monthly Microscopical Journal (1882) Advertisement from Benjamin Pike’s Son & Co., Vol. 3, November issue back cover

The American Repertory of Arts, Sciences, and Manufactures (1840) “Surveying and Drawing Instruments. Benjamin Pike & Sons, 166 Broadway. Silver Medal”, Vol. 1, page 468

Annual Report of the American Institute of the City of New York (1856) “Benjamin Pike, jr., 294 Broadway, for philosophical instruments. Silver medal … Benjamin Pike & Son, 518 Broadway, for superior surveying and optical instruments. Silver medal”, pages 176-177

The Baptist Missionary (1880) Advertisement from Benjamin Pike’s Son & Co., Vol. 61, November issue. Gives address as 928 Broadway

The Brooklyn Daily Eagle (1893) “On February 13. 1893, of pneumonia. Arthur Martin Pike, only son of Gardiner and Mariah M. Pike. Funeral services at his late residence. 115 West Seventy - seventh st. New York, on Wednesday, the 15th inst. at 4:30 P.M. Interment in Greenwood next day”, February 14, page 5

The Churchman (1880) Advertisements from Benjamin Pike’s Son & Co., Vol. 42, several issues through the year

The City Record: Official Journal (1886) “List of Registered Voters for the year 1886 … Broadway 930 Mansfield Hanville”, Vol. 14

Clark, James H. (1856) Sight and Hearing, How Preserved, and How Lost, C. Scribner, New York, Advertisements from Benjamin Like and Sons at back of the book

Craycraft, Ran (2010) The old Steinway Mansion, Why Leave Astoria?, http://www.whyleaveastoria.com/profiles/blogs/the-old-steinway-mansion

The Directory of New York (1852) “Pike Benj. optician, 166 Broadway, h. 42 N. Moore … Pike Benj. jr. optician, 294 B’dway, h 294 B’dway … Pike Benj. & Sons, opti. 166 B’dway, h. 42 N. Moore … Pike Daniel, optician, 166 Broadway, h. 42 N. Moore … Pike Gardiner, optician, 166 B’dway, h. 170 E. 23d” page 488

Engineering and Mining Journal (1882) Note on the dissolution of Benjamin Pike’s Son & Co., Vol. 33, page 329

Engineering News (1882) Note on the dissolution of Benjamin Pike’s Son & Co., Vol. 9, page 137

Engineering News-Record (1883) Note on the business name change to Benjamin Pike’s Sons, Vol. 10, February issue, page 54

Frey, Heinrich (1872) The Microscope and Microscopical Technology, Price list for Benjamin Pike’s Son, 1872, at rear of book

Lee, Charles A. (1842) On hygrometrical observations, The Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, Vol. 26, pages 69-77

Leonard's Illustrated Medical Scientific Journal (1880) Advertisement from Benjamin Pike’s Son & Co., Vol. 1, September issue

The List, a Visiting and Shopping Directory for the Season of 1886 (1886) “Pike's Son & Co., Benj., Mathematical Instruments, 930 B'way”, Commercial List, page 33

Longworth's American Almanac (1808) “Pike Benjamin, optician 147 Pearl”, D. Longworth, New York, page 251

Longworth's American Almanac (1813) “Pike Benjamin, optician 12 Wall”, D. Longworth, New York, page 246

Longworth's American Almanac (1829) “Pike Benjamin, optician 12 Wall”, D. Longworth, New York, page 452

Longworth's American Almanac (1834) “Pike & Son Benj. opticians 166 Broadway h. 13 N. Moore”, D. Longworth, New York, page 549

Longworth's American Almanac (1837) “Pike & Son Benj. opticians 166 Broadway h. 13 N. Moore”, D. Longworth, New York, page 494

Longworth's American Almanac (1839) “Pike jr. Benjamin, 166 Broadway h. 31 Pike … Pike & Son Benj. opticians 166 Broadway h. 13 Northmoore”, D. Longworth, New York, page 525

Longworth's American Almanac (1842) “Pike jr. Benjamin, 166 Broadway h. 59 James … Pike & Son Benj. opticians 166 Broadway h. 13 Northmoore”, D. Longworth, New York, page 525

Longworth's American Almanac (1843) “Pike jr. Benjamin, 166 Broadway h. 59 James … Pike & Sons Benj. opticians 166 Broadway h. 13 Northmoore”, D. Longworth, New York, page 490

Marriage records of Benjamin Pike and Sarah Parker (1805) Norton, Massachusetts, accessed through ancestry.com

Mercein's City Directory, New-York Register, and Almanac (1820) “Pike Benjamin, optician 12 Wall”, W.A. Mercein, New York

New-England Mercantile Union Business Directory (1849) Advertisement from Pike and Sons, page 5

The New York City Directory, for 1842 and 1843 (1842) “Pike Benj., jr. math’l instr., 166 Broadway h. 59 James … Pike Benjamin & Sons opticians 166 Broadway h. 42 N. Moore”, page 258

The New York City Directory (1843) “Pike Benj., jr. optician 294 Broadway h. 42 N. Moore … Pike Benjamin & Son opticians 166 Broadway h. 42 N. Moore … Pike Daniel, optician 166 Broadway, h. 42 N. Moore … Pike Benjamin & Son (Daniel Pike)”, pages 271 and 394

The New York City Directory (1848) “Pike Benjamin & Son opticians 166 Broadway h. 42 N. Moore … Pike Benj., jr. optician 294 Broadway h. 298 Broadway … Pike Daniel, optician 166 B’way, h. 42 N. Moore”, page 325

The New York Observer Yearbook and Almanac (1870) Advertisement from Benjamin Pike’s Son, page 15

New York Times (1863) “On Saturday, May 2, Benjamin Pike, Senior, in the 87th year of his age. The friends of the family, and those of his sons, Benjamin, Daniel and Gardiner, are invited to attend the funeral, from his late residence, No. 42 North Moore-st., on Tuesday, May 5, at 3 o'clock P.M.”, May 5 issue

New York Times (1885) An old house goes under, April 30, page 5

New York Times (1893) “At Providence, N.J., Sunday, April 16, Daniel Pike, son of the Late Benjamin Pike, in his 80th year. Funeral services in the Presbyterian Church, Wednesday at 10:30 A.M. Carriages will be at Summit Depot on arrival of 8:30 train from New York”, April 16 issue, page 5

Norton’s Literary Gazette and Publishers’ Circular (1855) Advertisement from Pike and Sons, New Series, Vol. 2, July issue, page 1

Norton’s Literary Letter (1858) Advertisement from Pike and Sons, last page

The Oration on the Thirteenth Anniversary of the American Institute (1840) “Benjamin Pike & Sons, 166 Broadway, for second best specimens of surveyors compasses and levels, beautiful finish. Diploma”, page 50

Pike, Benjamin Jr. (1848) Pike’s Illustrated Descriptive Catalogue of Optical, Mathematical, and Philosophical Instruments, 2 Volumes

Pike, Benjamin Jr. (1856) Pike’s Illustrated Descriptive Catalogue of Optical, Mathematical, and Philosophical Instruments, Second Edition, 2 Volumes

Prescott, Charles E. (1875) How to Become an Expert Shot, second edition, Mercantile Publishing Co., New York, Includes an advertisement from Pike

Scientific American (1863) Death of Benjamin Pike, Sen., Vol. 8, page 346

Second Annual Report of the Metropolitan Board of Health of the State of New York (1867) “Benjamin Pike’s Son”, page 57

Sheldon & Co.’s Business or Advertising Directory (1843) Advertisement from Pike and Son, page 128

Stone, J.B. (1878) Magnetic Variation in the United States, J.B. Stone, New York, contains advertisements from “Pike, Optician

Trow's New York City Directory (1857) “Pike Benjamin & Sons, opticians, importers & manufacturers of mathematical instruments, 518 Broadway, h 42 N. Moore … Pike Benjamin jr. optician, 294 Broadway … Pike Daniel, optician, 518 Broadway, h. 42 N. Moore … Pike Gardiner, optician, 518 Broadway, h. 42 N. Moore”, J.F. Trow, New York, page 658

Trow's New York City Directory (1875) “Pike Daniel, optician, 518 B’way, h New Providence, NJ … Pike’s Benjamin, Son, optician, 518 B’way … Robinson Jos. optician, 518 B’way, h 206 E. 50th”, J.F. Trow, New York, pages 1038 and 1104

Trow's New York City Directory (1877) “Pike Daniel, optician, 518 B’way, h New Providence, NJ … Pike’s Benjamin, Son, optician & manuf. of math. insts. 518 B’way”, J.F. Trow, New York, page 1091

Trow's New York City Directory (1878) “Pike Arthur, optician, 518 B’way … Pike Daniel, optician, 518 B’way, h New Providence, NJ … Pike’s Benjamin, Son, optician, 518 B’way”, J.F. Trow, New York, pages 1121-1122

Trow's New York City Directory (1885) “Robinson Jos. optician, 1146 B’way, h 24 E. 47th”, J.F. Trow, New York, page 1477

Trow's New York City Directory (1897) “Handvill Mansfield, optician, 18 E 23d, h Union Village, NJ … Pike’s Benj., Son, optician, 18E 23d … Robinson Jos. optician, 1146 B’way, h G’wich, Ct”, J.F. Trow, New York, pages 593, 1146, and 1219

Trow's New York City Directory (1916) “Pike’s Benjamin Son (Mansfield Handvill) opticians 638 Mad av & 24 E 59th”, J.F. Trow, New York, page 1332

The Trow New York Copartnership and Corporation Directory (1904) “Pike's Benjamin, Son (Mansfield Handvill, only) 18 E. 23d”, Trow, New York, page 486

The Trow New York Copartnership and Corporation Directory (1913) “Pike's Benjamin. Son (Mansfield, Handvill) 638 Madison Av”, Trow, New York

United States census and other vital records, accessed through ancestry.com

Wilson’s New York City Copartnership Directory (1879) “Pike’s Benjamin, Son & Co. (Daniel and Arthur Pike & Joseph Robinson) 930 B’way”, Vol. 27, page 104